Skip to main content.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
{search_item}

Department of Paleobiology

bar
face
  • Conrad Labandeira
  • Curator Paleoentomology
  • Phone:   202-633-1336
  • Fax:   202-786-2832
  • E-mail Address:   labandec
  • Mailing Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    PO Box 37012, MRC 121
    Washington, DC 20013-7012
  • Shipping Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    National Museum of Natural History
    10th & Constitution NW
    Washington, DC 20560-0121
bar

Education

Ph.D. University of Chicago
M.S. University of Wisconsin
B.A. California State University

Research Interests

Plant-insect associations in the fossil record (see: Damage Type Field Guide)
Insect paleoecology and the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems (see: ETE Program)
Early Devonian ecosystems and the origin of arthropod terrestriality


The fundamental question that encompasses my research is the following: How is it that insects and vascular plants have come to dominate virtually all land and freshwater environments? Specifically, how is this 420-million-year-old pattern of terrestrial monopolization reflected in the historical record of plants, insects, and their associations? The answer involves a fossil record that provides valuable information for long-term trends regarding feeding (trophic) structure in fossil assemblages, associational trends among trophically linked plant and insect lineages, the development of component communities (that is, a plant host and all of its dependent species), and ultimately ecosystem evolution. However, this line of investigation is quite new and is rooted in two different, albeit complementary, approaches. The first is examination of the evolutionary biology among extant plants and their associates, either at the ecological level of examining trophic interactions, or at the evolutionary level of documenting phylogenetic patterns in associated lineages of plant and insect species. Such actualistic studies have made considerable strides in revealing long-term evolutionary processes and often have generated insights into processes inherent in true coevolution.

Alternatively, one can assess the fossil record directly and document what has happened among co-occurring plants and insects, focusing on their associations. In this regard, I view the geochronologic history of these two hyperdiverse groups as consisting of three distinctive fossil records: the body-fossil record of plants, the body-fossil of insects, and importantly, the trace-fossil record of their associations. This latter archive of associations is based on five types of fossil evidence, depending on the type of preservation and whether the plant or insect component is better represented. They are, stressing first the plant evidence: (1) features of plant reproductive biology indicating insect association, (2) insect-mediated plant damage, (3) insect gut contents that contain plant material, (4) dispersed insect coprolites, and (5) the plant-related structure of insect mouthparts and ovipositors. All five elements constitute a matrix that in any one deposit may be variously present or absent, and whose assembly is essential for the reconstruction and interpretation of plant-insect associations within a bygone community. It should be noted that all three fossil records are important, but it is the associational record that provides the ecological dimension for understanding not only the spectrum from looser detritivorous to more intricate herbivorous relationships, but also the evolution of trophic webs at the local community and broader ecosystem levels.

My research has taken four major directions, although other, related projects are being pursued as well now and into the future.

Document the expansion of herbivory during the Late Carboniferous to Middle Permian of Euramerica. In addition to my work with Tom Phillips of the University of Illinois on coal-swamp forests, I am working currently at two spatiotemporal scales to address the question of how herbivory apparently spread out of equatorial Carboniferous wetland floras and into more mesic and xeric clastic environments along the equator of the paleocontinent Euramerica. The first study is an examination of herbivore damage type and extent, particularly on the pinnules of the common medullosan seed-fern, Macroneuropteris scheuchzeri, across several environments across Euramerica. I have established a reference collection of foliar material from Mazon Creek, Illinois, where four distinctive damage types occur, as well as other floras across Late Paleozoic time and space in Euramerica. I expect that distinctive Late Paleozoic patterns of insect-mediated damage will reveal the timing, scope, and habitat preferences of insect herbivory. The second approach is spatiotemporally coarser grained, and involves continued qualitative and quantitative examination of site-specific floras for insect damage on all types of vascular plant hosts. Values indicating the intensity and host-specificity of herbivores for these floras can be compared for a 35 million year period during the Early Permian in sites from north-central Texas (Beck & Labandeira, 1998; Labandeira & Allen, 2007). So far, results have indicated that it was seed-fern lineages such as medullosans and gigantopterids that experienced the greatest extent of herbivory in extra-swamp habitats, at least for the Early Permian.

Document the role that the end-Permian extinction had on plant-insect associations in Gondwana. The most massive extinction of the Phanerozoic is the end-Permian (P-T) event. Although this event devastated both marine and terrestrial ecosystems, virtually nothing is known of its effect on plant-insect associations. In a recent study with colleagues from South Africa, The Netherlands and United States, we have examined the floristics, palynology, taphonomic style, biostratigraphy, and plant-insect associations across a 50-million-year interval from the Middle Permian to the early Late Triassic in the Karoo Basin of South Africa. Our preliminary research, involving the examination of insect-mediated herbivore damage on leaves, stems, seeds, and other organs, has documented a broad diversity of most exophytic damage on glossopterid-dominated floras during the Permian, with a dominance of external foliage feeding, oviposition and subordinate piercing-and-sucking. By contrast, by the early Late Triassic, there already was a shift toward endophytic modes of herbivory that included leaf mining, galling, and seed predation, in addition to continuation of the Late Permian types of exophytic herbivory. Notably, this before-and-after comparison records (1) a major turnover in the plant hosts and their generalized and specialized insect herbivores before and after the P-T event; (2) a significant lag after the P-T event in which a typical flora of filicalean ferns, peltasperms, corystosperms, voltzialean conifers, ginkgoopsids, cycads and other plant clades became dominant (Middle Triassic), and an even more significant lag in which these plant lineages were colonized by varied insect herbivores (early Late Triassic); and (3) the presence of a major colonization event of generalized to specialized insect herbivores on a mid-Triassic seed-plant flora every bit as dramatic as the one that colonized angiosperms about 100 million years later during the mid Early Cretaceous.

Investigate the role that the end-Cretaceous extinction had on plant-insect associations of North America. An obvious question regarding a recent study of plant-insect associations in the Williston Basin of North Dakota is whether our results were local (Labandeira et al., 2002a, 2002b), or applicable to other worldwide sites. A follow-up study currently is being conducted in the Denver Basin of central Colorado, which is significantly closer to the asteroid impact site of Yucatan, Mexico. A major motivation for analyzing the effect of the K/T event on plant-insect associations from the Denver Basin is to determine if the patterns found in the Williston Basin are repeated further south, including the Raton Basin of New Mexico. To date, these patterns include a high level of extinction of specialized over generalized associations, a major decrease in bulk herbivory, and presence of a protracted interval of low herbivory levels without rebound to previous levels. We anticipate matching our Williston data set of about 13,400 leaf specimens with at least the same number from the Denver Basin, making data from the two basins comparable. In related studies, I and colleagues are investigating the postextinction phase of this event in various basins of the northern Western Interior. Preliminary results suggest that plant-insect associations did not regain latest Cretaceous levels for almost all localities until the early Eocene, approximately 11 million years later (Wilf et al. 2006).

Evaluate vegetational turnover and shifting strategies of insect herbivory resulting from the Early Cenozoic Thermal Maximum (ECTM). In follow-up studies of latest Paleocene to early middle Eocene floras of the Western Interior, we have examined the change from earlier temperate, aseasonal vegetation to later subtropical, seasonal vegetation (Wilf & Labandeira 1999; Wilf et al. 2001). We have documented change in vegetational composition and structure as well as associated insect herbivory in floras representing three successive slices of time, collectively representing an 11-miliion-year period straddling the ECTM. During this interval we noted that herbivory increased as the vegetation ranged from temperate to subtropical, representing a gradient in time that was analogous to the spatial gradient today from the midlatitudes to the tropics. Additionally, we observed that the style of herbivory changed markedly through this interval and was characterized by a widening gap of intensity between the less herbivorized but better defended evergreen species and the more herbivorized and poorly defended evergreen species. Also noted was the emergence of a distinctive group of deciduous, riparian plants—sycamores and poplars—that experienced the highest herbivore levels. These patterns, including insect food-web recovery patterns, now can be tested for generality in other well-preserved and abundant floras in the Western Interior and Patagonia during the late Paleocene, through the ECTM, and later, that straddle this period of intense global warming (Wilf et al. 2005, 2006; Lopez-Vaamonde et al. 2005).

In summary, this research program encompasses diverse approaches involving an investigation of the fossil record of insects, plants, and their associations. The principal directions of this research are: (1) the role that the origin and radiation of novel plant groups and attendant trophic resources had on plant-dependent insects; (2) the short-term to long-term impact that instantaneous extinction events had on the associations between plants and insects; (3) the consequences that more geochronologically prolonged changes in global climate had on insect herbivory patterns and strategies via changes in vegetation composition and structure; and (4) documentation of the dynamics of specific associations between plant-host species and their dependent insect-herbivore species during long stretches of geologic time. These data are being integrated with complementary studies by evolutionary biologists for formulating a more complete, historical perspective regarding how the two most diverse terrestrial groups of organisms have associated in time to generate the bewildering diversity of associations we see today.

[ TOP ]


Publications

Labandeira, Conrad C., Tremblay, Susan L., Bartowski, Kenneth E. and VanAller Hernick, Linda. 2014. Middle Devonian liverwort herbivory and antiherbivore defence, New Phytologist, 202(1):247-258

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Dunne, Jennifer A. 2014. Data from: Highly resolved early Eocene food webs show development of modern trophic structure after the end-Cretaceous extinction.

Schachat, Sandra R., Labandeira, Conrad C., Gordon, Jessie, Chaney, Dan, Levi, Stephanie, Halthore, Maya N. and Alvarez, Jorge. 2014. Plant-Insect Interactions from Early Permian (Kungurian) Colwell Creek Pond, North-Central Texas: the Early Spread of Herbivory in Riparian Environments, International Journal of Plant Sciences, 175(8):855-890

Blois, Jessica L., Gotelli, Nicholas J., Behrensmeyer, Anna K., Faith, J. T., Lyons, S. K., Williams, John W., Amatangelo, Kathryn L., Bercovici, Antoine, Du, Andrew, Eronen, Jussi T., Graves, Gary R., Jud, Nathan, Labandeira, Conrad, Looy, Cindy V., McGill, Brian, Patterson, David, Potts, Richard, Riddle, Brett, Terry, Rebecca, Tóth, Anikó, Villaseñor, Amelia and Wing, Scott L. 2014. A framework for evaluating the influence of climate, dispersal limitation, and biotic interactions using fossil pollen associations across the late Quaternary, Ecography, 37(11):1095-1108

Feng, Zhuo, Schneider, Jö, Labandeira, Conrad C., Kretzschmar, Ralph and Rößler, Ronny. 2014. A specialized feeding habit of Early Permian oribatid mites, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology,

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Prevec, Rose. 2014. Plant paleopathology and the roles of pathogens and insects, International Journal of Paleopathology, 4:1-16

Dunne, Jennifer A., Labandeira, Conrad C. and Williams, Richard J. 2014. Highly resolved early Eocene food webs show development of modern trophic structure after the end-Cretaceous extinction, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281(1782)

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2014. "Why Did Terrestrial Insect Diversity Not Increase During the Angiosperm Radiation? Mid-Mesozoic, Plant-Associated Insect Lineages Harbor Clues". Pp. 261-299 in Evolutionary Biology: Genome Evolution, Speciation, Coevolution and Origin of Life (Pontarotti, Pierre). Springer International Publishing

Carvalho, Mónica, Wilf, Peter, Barrios, Héctor, Windsor, Donald M., Currano, Ellen D., Labandeira, Conrad C. and Jaramillo, Carlos A. 2014. Insect Leaf-Chewing Damage Tracks Herbivore Richness in Modern and Ancient Forests, Plos One, 9(5):1-9

Yang, Qiang, Wang, Yongjie, Labandeira, Conrad C., Shih, Chungkun and Ren, Dong. 2014. Mesozoic lacewings from China provide phylogenetic insight into evolution of the Kalligrammatidae (Neuroptera), BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14(1)

Donovan, Michael P., Wilf, Peter, Labandeira, Conrad C., Johnson, Kirk R. and Peppe, Daniel J. 2014. Novel Insect Leaf-Mining after the End-Cretaceous Extinction and the Demise of Cretaceous Leaf Miners, Great Plains, USA, Plos One, 9(7):1-35

Vrsansky, P., Oruzinsky, R., Barna, P., Vidlicka, L' and Labandeira, Conrad C. 2014. Native Ectobius (Blattaria: Ectobiidae) From the Early Eocene Green River Formation of Colorado and Its Reintroduction to North America 49 Million Years Later, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 107(1):28-36

Zhang, Weitung, Shih, Chungkun, Labandeira, Conrad C., Sohn, Jae-Cheon, Davis, Donald R., Santago-Blay, Jorge, Flint, Oliver S. Jr and Ren, Dong. 2013. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China, Plos One, 8(11):1-33

Greenwalt, Dale and Labandeira, Conrad. 2013. The Amazing Fossil Insects of the Eocene Kishenehn Formation in NW Montana, Rocks and Minerals, 88(5):434-441

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Currano, Ellen D. 2013. The Fossil Record of Plant-Insect Dynamics, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 41(1):287-311

ChungKun, Shih, Xiao, Qiao, Labandeira, Conrad C. and Dong, Ren. 2013. A New Mesopsychid (Mecoptera) from the Middle Jurassic of Northeastern China, Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition), 87(5):1235-1241

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2013. Deep-time patterns of tissue consumption by terrestrial arthropod herbivores, Naturwissenschaften, 100(4):355-364

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2013. A paleobiologic perspective on plant–insect interactions, Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 16(4):414-421

Stull, Gregory W., Labandeira, Conrad C., Dimichele, William A. and Chaney, Dan S. 2013. The "Seeds" on Padgettia readi are Insect Galls: Reassignment of the Plant to Odontopteris, the Gall to Ovofoligallites N. Gen., and the Evolutionary Implications Thereof, Journal of Paleontology, 87(2):217-231

Wappler, Torsten, Labandeira, Conrad C., Rust, Jes, Frankenhäuser, Herbert and Wilde, Volker. 2012. Testing for the Effects and Consequences of Mid Paleogene Climate Change on Insect Herbivory, PLoS ONE, 7(7):1-13

Wang, Yongjie, Labandeira, Conrad C., Shih, Chungkun, Ding, Qiaoling, Wang, Chen, Zhao, Yunyun and Ren, Dong. 2012. Jurassic mimicry between a hangingfly and a ginkgo from China, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(50):20514-20519

Sohn, Jae-Cheon, Labandeira, Conrad C., Davis, Donald R. and Mitter, Charles. 2012. An annotated catalog of fossil and subfossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Holometabola) of the world, Zootaxa, (3286):1-132

Peñalver, Enrique, Labandeira, Conrad C., Barrón, Eduardo, Delclòs, Xavier, Nel, Patricia, Nel, André, Tafforeau, Paul and Soriano, Carmen. 2012. Thrips Pollination of Mesozoic Gymnosperms, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(22):8623-8628

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2012. "Evidence for Outbreaks from the Fossil Record of Insect Herbivory". Pp. 267-290 in Insect Outbreaks Revisited (Barbosa, Pedro, Letourneau, Deborah K. and Agrawal, Anurag A.). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Moisan, Philippe, Labandeira, Conrad C., Matushkina, Natalia A., Wappler, Torsten, Voigt, Sebastian and Kerp, Hans. 2012. Lycopsid-arthropod associations and odonatopteran oviposition on Triassic herbaceous Isoetites, Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, 344-345:6-15

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2011. Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence Time and the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola Lineages, Entomologica Americana, 117(1):9-21

Hughes, David, Wappler, Torsten and Labandeira, Conrad C. 2011. Ancient death-grip leaf scars reveal ant-fungal parasitism, Biology Letters, 7(1):67-70

D'Rozario, Ashalata, Labandeira, Conrad C., Guo, Wen-Yi, Yao, Yi-Feng and Li, Cheng-Sen. 2011. Spatiotemporal extension of the Euramerican Psaronius component community to the Late Permian of Cathaysia: In situ coprolites in a P. housuoensis stem from Yunnan Province, southwest China, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 306(3-4):127-133

Ren, Dong, Shih, ChungKun and Labandeira, Conrad C. 2011. A well-preserved aneuretopsychid from the Jehol Biota of China (Insecta: Mecoptera: Aneuretopsychidae), Zookeys, 129:17-28

Shih, ChungKun, Yang, Xiaoguang, Labandeira, Conrad C. and Ren, Dong. 2011. A new long-proboscid genus of Pseudopolycentropodidae (Mecoptera) from the Middle Jurassic of China and its plant-host specializations, Zookeys, 130:281-297

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2010. "Pollination mutualism in insects before the evolution of flowers". Pp. 1-5 in ().

Ren, Dong, Shih, Chungkun and Labandeira, Conrad C. 2010. New Jurassic Pseudopolycentropodids from China (Insecta: Mecoptera), Acta Geologica Sinica, 84(1):22-30

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2010. The Pollination of Mid Mesozoic Seed Plants and the Early History of Long-proboscid Insects, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 97(4):469-513

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2010. "Pollination mutualism in insects before the evolution of flowers". Pp. 1-5 in McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science & technology ().

Winkler, Isaac S., Labandeira, Conrad C., Wappler, Torsten and Wilf, Peter. 2010. Distinguishing Agromyzidae (Diptera) Leaf Mines in the Fossil Record: New Taxa from the Paleogene of North America and Germany and their Evolutionary Implications, Journal of Paleontology, 84(5):935-954

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2010. "Pollination and "flower" visits". Pp. 296-310 in Silent Stories--Insect Fossil Treasures from the Dinosaura of Northeastern China (Ren, Dong, Shih, ChungKun, Gao, Taiping, Yao, Yunzhi and Zhao, Yunyun). Science Press

Ren, Dong, Labandeira, Conrad C. and ChungKun, S. 2010. New Mesozoic Mesopsychidae (Mecoptera) from Northeastern China, Acta Geologica Sinica, 84(4):720-731

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2010. "Pollination mutualism in insects before the evolution of flowers". Pp. 1-5 in ().

Currano, Ellen D., Labandeira, Conrad C. and Wilf, Peter. 2010. Fossil insect folivory tracks paleotemperature for six million years, Ecological Monographs, 80(4):547-567

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2010. The transformation of paleontology and its importance for evolutionary biology, Evolution, (2):599-602

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2009. The Paleobiological Revolution: Essays on the Growth of Modern Paleobiology, Evolution, 63(3):599-602

Currano, Ellen D., Labandeira, Conrad C. and Wilf, Peter. 2009. Dynamics of plant-insect interactions during late Paleocene and early Eocene environmental perturbations in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, Extended Abstracts of the International Meeting of Climatic and Biotic Events of the Paleogene, 9:44-46

Bennington, J. B., DiMichele, William A., Badgley, Catherine, Bambach, Richard K., Barrett, Paul M., Behrensmeyer, Anna K., Bobe, Rene, Burnham, Robyn J., Daeschler, Edward B., Van Dam, Jan, Eronen, Jussi T., Erwin, Douglas H., Finnegan, Seth, Holland, Steven M., Hunt, Gene, Jablonski, David, Jackson, Stephen T., Jacobs, Bonnie E., Kidwell, Susan M., Koch, Paul L., Kowalewski, Michal J., Labandeira, Conrad C., Looy, Cindy V., Lyons, Sara K., Novack-Gottshall, Philip M., et al. 2009. Critical Issues of Scale in Paleoecology, Palaios, 24(1-2):1-4

Prevec, Rose, Labandeira, Conrad C., Neveling, Johann, Gastaldo, Robert A., Looy, Cindy V. and Bamford, Marion. 2009. Portrait of a Gondwanan ecosystem: A new late Permian fossil locality from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156(3-4):454-493

Sarzetti, Laura C., Labandeira, Conrad C., Muzón, Javier, Wilf, Peter, Cúneo, N. Ruben, Johnson, Kirk R. and Genise, Jorge F. 2009. Odonatan endophytic oviposition from the Eocene of Patagonia: The ichnogenus Paleoovoidius and implications for dragonfly behavioral stasis, Journal of Paleontology, 83(3):431-447

Wing, Scott L., Herrera, Fabiany, Jaramillo, Carlos A., Gómez-Navarro, Carolina, Wilf, Peter and Labandeira, Conrad C. 2009. Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejón Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(44):18627-18632

Ren, Dong, Labandeira, Conrad C., Santiago-Blay, Jorge A., Rasnitsyn, Alexandr, Shih, ChungKun, Bashkuev, Alexei, Logan, M. Amelia V., Hotton, Carol L. and Dilcher, David. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies, Science, 326(5954):840-847

Wappler, Torsten, Currano, Ellen D., Wilf, Peter, Rust, Jes and Labandeira, Conrad C. 2009. No post-Cretaceous ecosystem depression in European forests? Rich insect-feeding damage on diverse middle Palaeocene plants, Menat, France, Proceedings of the Royal Society (London) B, 276(1677):4271-4277

Wang, Jun, Labandeira, Conrad C., Zhang, Guangfu, Bek, Jirí and Pfefferkorn, Hermann W. 2009. Permian Circulipuncturites discinisporis Labandeira, Wang, Zhang, Bek et Pfefferkorn gen. et spec. nov. (formerly Discinispora) from China, an ichnotaxon of a punch-and-sucking insect on Noeggerathialean spores, Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 156(3-4):277-282

Sarzetti, Laura C., Labandeira, Conrad C. and Genise, Jorge F. 2009. Melittosphex (Hymenoptera: Melittosphecidae), a primitive bee and not a wasp, Palaeontology, 52:484

Sarzetti, L. C., Labandeira, Conrad C. and Genise, J. F. 2008. A leafcutter bee trace fossil from the Middle Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina, and a review of megachilid (Hymenoptera) ichnology, Palaeontology, 51:933-941

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2008. Book review of: Insect Diets: Science and Technology, by A.C. Cohen, 2004, (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2004, 324 p.), Palaios, :1-2

Pott, Christian, Labandeira, Conrad C., Krings, Michael and Kerp, Hans. 2008. Fossil insect eggs and ovipositional damage on bennettitalean leaf cuticles from the Carnian (Upper Triassic) of Austria, Journal of Paleontology, 82(4):778-789

Currano, Ellen D., Wilf, Peter, Wing, Scott L., Labandeira, Conrad C., Lovelock, Elizabeth C. and Royer, Dana L. 2008. Sharply increased insect herbivory during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(6):1960-1964

Iannuzzi, R. and Labandeira, Conrad C. 2008. The oldest record of external foliage feeding and the expansion of insect folivory on land, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 101(1):79-94

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2007. "Devonian: Insect and other arthropod associations. Carboniferous: Insect associations. Permian: Insect associations. Triassic: Insect associations. Jurassic: Insect associations. Cretaceous: Insect associations. Tertiary: Insect associations". Pp. 72-87 in Brief History of the Gymnosperms: Classification, Biodiversity, Phytogeography and Ecology (Anderson, John M., Anderson, Heidi M. and Cleal, Chris J.). South African National Biodiversity Institute

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2007. "Assessing the fossil record of plant-insect associations: ichnodata versus body-fossil data.". Pp. 3-21 in Ichnology at the Crossroads: A Multidimensional Approach to the Science of Organism-Substrate Interactions (Bromley, R., Buatois, Luis A., Genise, J., Mágano, M. G. and Melchor, R.).

Bromley, R. G., Buatois, Luis A., Genise, J. F., Labandeira, Conrad C., Mngano, M. G., Melchor, R. N., Schlirf, M. and Uchman, A. 2007. Comments on the paper "Reconnaissance of Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation ichnofossils, Rocky Mountain Region, USA: Paleoenvironmental, stratigraphic, and paleoclimatic significance of terrestrial and freshwater ichnocoenoses" by Stephen T. Hasiotis, Sedimentary Geology, 200:141-150

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Allen, E. M. 2007. Minimal insect herbivory for the Lower Permian Coprolite Bone Bed site of north-central Texas, USA, and comparison to other late Paleozoic floras, Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology, 247:197-219

Labandeira, Conrad C., Wilf, Peter, Johnson, K. R. and Marsh, F.2007. Guide to Insect (and Other) Damage Types on Compressed Plant Fossils (version 3.0). Smithsonian Institution

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2007. The origin of herbivory on land: The initial pattern of live tissue consumption by arthropods, Insect Science, 14:259-274

Royer, Dana L., Sack, Lawren, Wilf, Peter, Lusk, Christopher H., Jordan, Gregory J., Niinemets, Ulo, Wright, Ian J., Westoby, Mark, Cariglino, Barbara, Coley, Phyllis D., Cutter, Asher D., Johnson, Kirk R., Labandeira, Conrad C., Moles, Angela T., Palmer, Matthew B. and Valladares, Fernando. 2007. Fossil leaf economics quantified: calibration, Eocene case study, and implications, Paleobiology, 33(4):574-589

Labandeira, Conrad C., Kvacek, Jiri and Mostovski, Mikhail B. 2007. Pollination drops, pollen, and insect pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms, Taxon, 56(3):663-695

Lopez-Vaamonde, C., Wikstrom, N., Labandeira, Conrad C., Godfray, H., Goodman, S. J. and Cook, J. M. 2006. Fossil-calibrated molecular phylogenies reveal that leaf-mining moths radiated millions of years after their host plants, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 19(4):1314-1326

Ward, Peter, Labandeira, Conrad C., Laurin, Michel and Berner, Robert A. 2006. Confirmation of Romer's Gap as a low oxygen interval constraining the timing of initial arthropod and vertebrate terrestrialization, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(45):16818-16822

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2006. Silurian to Triassic plant and insect clades and their associations: new data, a review, and interpretations, Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, 64:53-94

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2006. The four phases of plant-arthropod associations in deep time, Geologica Acta, 4:409-438

Wilf, Peter, Labandeira, Conrad C., Johnson, K. R. and Ellis, B. 2006. Decoupled plant and insect diversity after the end-Cretaceous extinction, Science, 313:1112-1115

Wilf, Peter, Labandeira, Conrad C., Johnson, Kirk R. and Cuneo, N. Ruben. 2005. Richness of plant-insect associations in Eocene Patagonia: A legacy for South American biodiversity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102:8944-8948

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2005. "Fossil history of the Diptera and their associations with plants". Pp. 217-273 in The Evolutionary Biology of Flies (Wiegmann, B. and Yeates, D.). Columbia University Press

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2005. The fossil record of insect extinction: new approaches and future directions, American Entomologist, 51(1):14-29

Gastaldo, Robert A., Adendorff, Rose, Bamford, Marion, Labandeira, Conrad C., Neveling, Johann and Sims, Hallie J. 2005. Taphonomic trends of macrofloral assemblages across the Permian-Triassic boundary, Karoo Basin, South Africa, Palaios, 20(5):479-497

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2005. Invasion of the continents: cyanobacterial crusts to tree-inhabiting arthropods, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20(5):253-262

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2005. Recent and exciting developments in understanding fossil insects and their terrestrial relatives, American Paleontologist, 13:8-11

DiMichele, William A., Behrensmeyer, Anna K., Olszewski, T. D., Labandeira, Conrad C., Pandolfi, John M., Wing, Scott L. and Bobe, Rene. 2004. Long-term stasis in ecological assemblages: evidence from the fossil record, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 35:285-322

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2003. Book review of: Atlas of Plants and Animals in Baltic Amber, by W. Weitschat and W. Wichard [Friedrich Pfeil, 2002, 256 p.], Geologica Acta, 1(1):146-150

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2003. Reading the tree leaves, Natural History, 112(3):13

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2002. "The history of associations between plants and animals". Pp. 26-74, 248-61 in Plant-Animal Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach (Herrera, C. and Pellmyr, O.). Blackwell Science

Labandeira, Conrad C., Johnson, K. R. and Lang, P. 2002. "A preliminary assessment of insect herbivory across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary: extinction and minimal rebound". Pp. 297-327 in The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Northern Great Plains-An Integrated Continental Record at the End of the Cretaceous (Hartman, J. H., Johnson, K. R. and Nichols, D. J.). Geological Society of America

Labandeira, Conrad C., Johnson, K. R. and Wilf, Peter. 2002. Impact of the terminal Cretaceous event on plant-insect associations, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99:2061-2066

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Eble, G. 2002. Global diversity patterns of insects from the fossil record, Santa Fe Institute Working Paper, 121:1-54

Miller, M. F. and Labandeira, Conrad C. 2002. Slow crawl across the salinity divide: delayed colonization of freshwater ecosystems by invertebrates, Geological Society of America Today, 12(12):4-10

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Philips, T. L. 2002. Stem borings and petiole galls from Pennsylvanian tree ferns of Illinois, USA: Implications for the origin of the borer and galling functional-feeding-groups and holometabolous insects, Palaeontographica (A), 264(1):1-84

Kowalewski, M., Kelley, P. H., Bambach, Richard K., Baumiller, T. K., Bengtson, S., Brett, C. E., Chin, K., Culver, Stephen J., Dietl, G. P., Farlow, J. O., Gahn, F. J., Haynes, G., Holtz, Jr, Thomas Richard, Jenkins, I., Labandeira, Conrad C., Lipps, J. H., van Valkenburgh, B., Vermeij, G. J. and Walker, S. E. 2002. "The fossil record of predation: methods, patterns, and processes". Pp. 395-398 in The Fossil Record of Predatio (Kowalewski, M. and Kelley, P. H.).

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2002. "Paleobiology of predators, parasitoids, and parasites: accommodation and death in the fossil record of terrestrial invertebrates.". Pp. 211-250 in The Fossil Record of Predation (Kowalewski, M. and Kelley, P. H.). Geological Society of America

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2002. Paleobiology of middle Eocene plant-insect associations of the Pacific Northwest: a preliminary report, Rocky Mountain Geology, 37:31-59

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2001. "The rise and diversification of insects". Pp. 82-88 in Palaeobiology II (Briggs, D. E. G. and Crowther, P. R.). Blackwell Science

Labandeira, Conrad C., Lepage, B. A. and Johnson, A. H. 2001. A Dendroctonus bark engraving (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) from a Middle Eocene Larix (Coniferales: Pinaceae): Early or delayed colonization?, American Journal of Botany, 88(11):2026-2039

Vrsansky, P., Storozhenko, S., Labandeira, Conrad C. and Ihringova, P. 2001. Galloisiana olgae sp. nov. (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) and the paleobiology of a relict order of insects, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 94(2):179-184

Mángano, M. G., Labandeira, Conrad C., Kvale, E. and Buatois, Luis A. 2001. The insect trace fossil Tonganoxichnus from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Indiana: paleobiologic and paleoenvironmental implications, Ichnos, 8(3):165-175

Wilf, Peter, Labandeira, Conrad C., Johnson, K. R., Coley, Phyllis D. and Cutter, A. D. 2001. Insect herbivory, plant defense, and early Cenozoic climate change, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98:6221-6226

Labandeira, Conrad C. 2000. "The paleobiology of pollination and its precursors". Pp. 233-269 in Phanerozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems (Gastaldo, Robert A. and DiMichele, William A.).

Johnson, K., Nichols, Donald K., Labandeira, Conrad C. and Pearson, D. 2000. Devastation of Terrestrial Ecosystems at the K-T Boundary in North America: The First Calibrated Record of Plant and Animal Response to the Chixulub Impact, Lunar and Planetary Institute Contribution, 1053:85-86

Wilf, Peter and Labandeira, Conrad C. 2000. Plant-insect associations respond to Paleocene-Eocene warming, Geologiska Foreningens Forhandlingar, 122(1):178-179

Wilf, Peter, Labandeira, Conrad C., Kress, W. John, Staines, Charles L., Windsor, Donald M., Allen, A. L. and Johnson, K. R. 2000. Timing the radiations of leaf-beetles: Hispines on gingers from Latest Cretaceous to Recent, Science, 289:291-294

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1999. Book review of Arthropod Fossils and Phylogeny, edited by G.A. Edgecombe, [Columbia University Press, 1998, 347 p, Palaios, 14(4):405-407

Wilf, Peter and Labandeira, Conrad C. 1999. Response of plant-insect associations to Paleocene-Eocene warming, Science, 284:2153-2156

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1999. "Insects and other hexapods". Pp. 603-624 in Encyclopedia of Paleontology (Singer, R.). Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1999. "Myriapods". Pp. 767-775 in Encyclopedia of Paleontology (Singer, R.). Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Smith, D. M. 1999. Forging a future for fossil insects: thoughts on the First International Paleoentomolgical Conference, Paleobiology, 25(2):154-157

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1998. How old is the flower and the fly?, Science, 280:57-59

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1998. "The role of insects in Late Jurassic to Middle Cretaceous ecosystems". Pp. 105-124 in Lower and Middle Cretaceous Terrestrial Ecosystems. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin (Lucas, Spencer G., Kirkland, J. I. and Estep, J. W.).

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1998. Early history of arthropod and vascular plant associations, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 26:329-377

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1998. Plant-insect associations from the fossil record, GeoTimes, 43(9):18-24

Beck, A. L. and Labandeira, Conrad C. 1998. Early Permian insect folivory on a gigantopterid-dominated riparian flora from north-central Texas, Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology, 142(3):139-173

Damuth, J., Behrensmeyer, Anna K., DiMichele, William A., Labandeira, Conrad C., Potts, Richard and Wing, Scott L.1997. ETE Database Manual. Evolution of Terrestrial Ecosystems Consortium.

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1997. Insect mouthparts: ascertaining the paleobiology of insect feeding strategies, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28:153-193

Labandeira, Conrad C., Philips, T. L. and Norton, R. L. 1997. Oribatid mites and decomposition of plant tissues in Paleozoic coal-swamp forests, Palaios, 12:317-351

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1997. Permian pollen eating, Science, 227:1422-1423

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Philips, T. L. 1996. Insect fluid-feeding on Upper Pennsylvanian tree ferns (Palaeodictyoptera, Marattiales) and the early history of the piercing-and-sucking functional feeding group, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 89(2):157-183

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1996. Book review of: Invasions of the Land: The Transitions of Organisms from Aquatic to Terrestrial Life, by M.S. Gordon and E.C. Olsen [Columbia University Press, 1995, 312 p, Écoscience, 3(2):239

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Phillips, T. L. 1996. A Carboniferous insect gall: insight into early ecologic history of the Holometabola, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(16):8470-8474

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1996. "Insects". Pp. 155-158 in McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology 1996 (). McGraw-Hill, Inc

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1995. "Fossil insects". Pp. 255-258 in McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology for 1996 (Parker, S. P.). McGraw-Hill

Hughes, Nigel and Labandeira, Conrad C. 1995. The stability of species in taxonomy, Paleobiology, 21(4):401-403

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1995. Book review of: Quaternary Insects and Their Environments, by S.A. Elias, (Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994, 284 p.), The Quarterly Review of Biology, 70(1):68-69

Labandeira, Conrad C., Dilcher, D. L., Davis, Donald R. and Wagner, D. L. 1994. Ninety-seven million years of angiosperm-insect association: paleobiological insights into the meaning of coevolution, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91(25):12278-12282

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1994. A compendium of fossil insect families, Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology, 88:1-71

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Hughes, Nigel C. 1994. Biometry of the Late Cambrian trilobite genus Dikelocephalus and its implications for trilobite systematics, Journal of Paleontology, 68(3):492-517

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1993. What's new with insect fossils?, American Paleontologist, 1(4):1-5

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1993. Book review of: Life in Amber, by G.O. Poinar, Jr. [Stanford University Press, 1992, 350 p.], Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 101(4):581-585

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Sepkoski, J. J. 1993. Insect diversity in the fossil record, Science, 261:310-315

Labandeira, Conrad C. 1993. The real meaning of fossil insects., Palaios, 8(6):509-511

Beall, B. S. and Labandeira, Conrad C. 1990. "Patterns of evolution of chelicerates and tracheates". Pp. 257-284 in Arthropods: Notes for a Short Course (Mikulic, D.).

Labandeira, Conrad C. and Beall, B. S. 1990. "Arthropod Terrestriality". Pp. 214-256 in "Arthropods: Notes for a Short Course" (Mikulic, D.).

Labandeira, Conrad C., Beall, B. S. and Hueber, Francis M. 1988. Early insect diversification: evidence from a Lower Devonian bristletail from Quebéc, Science, 242:913-916