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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
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Department of Paleobiology

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  • Brian T. Huber
  • Curator of Planktic Foraminifera and
    Department Chairman
  • Phone:   202-633-1328
  • Fax:   202-786-2832
  • E-mail Address:   huberb
  • Mailing Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    PO Box 37012, MRC 121
    Washington, DC 20013-7012
  • Shipping Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    National Museum of Natural History
    10th & Constitution NW
    Washington, DC 20560-0121
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Education

Ph.D. The Ohio State University, 1988
M.S. The Ohio State University, 1984
B.S. The University of Akron, 1981

Research Interests

My research involves the study of foraminifera, especially planktonic foraminifera, and what they can tell us about how Earth’s environment has changed during the past 120 million years. Because of their small size, relatively short geologic age ranges, and wide distribution in a variety of marine sediments worldwide, study of foraminiferal assemblages provides valuable insight to the age of the sediments in which they are found (biostratigraphy), the type of environment in which they were deposited (paleoecology), and the temperature of the ocean water in which they grew (paleoclimatology and paleoceanography). Biostratigraphic analysis require species identification and calculation of sedimentation rates using age calibrations for the evolutionary appearances and extinctions of species from different fossil groups, paleomagnetic reversal events, carbon and oxygen isotopic events, and constraints using radiometric and strontium isotopic data. These are plotted on age-depth curves such as those provided by CHRONOS. Insight into paleoecologic change is gained through quantitative analysis of species assemblages through time as well as through study of shell geochemistry. Oxygen isotope analyses of well preserved foraminiferal shells are especially useful for determination of relative paleotemperature changes of the ocean bottom (using benthic foraminifera) and the ocean surface (using planktonic foraminifera). For all of my studies, accurate species identification is a necessity. This has led to my participation in several taxonomic working groups and development of taxonomic atlases and databases that are accessible through the internet.

Global Change Research on Short and Long Time Scales

Long-term (>3 million year) stable isotope records provide valuable insight to major shifts in global climate, organic carbon burial rates, and ocean circulation. Oxygen isotope paleotemperatures from benthic (bottom dwelling) foraminifera that lived below 500 m water depth can be used to characterize the global climatic state. If the benthic temperature estimates fall below 10ºC then we can assume that winter temperatures at polar latitudes fell below freezing. If the deepwater temperatures fall below 5ºC then continental ice sheets probably existed at polar latitudes. On the other hand, if deepwater temperatures were greater than 15ºC then we can assume that no permanent ice existed and winter freezing at polar latitudes is unlikely. Examples of long-term climate change are presented for deep sea (>1000 m) sites the subtropical western Atlantic and for sites poleward of 58ºS around Antarctica. The subtropical deepwater temperatures shown on the Blake Nose graph and the surface water temperatures on the southern high latitudes graph both indicate that the middle through Late Cretaceous was a time of extreme global climatic warmth. The temperature maximum during the Cretaceous occurred about 94-89 million years ago, with surface water temperatures estimated as warm as 32ºC at 58ºS paleolatitude. Deepwater (>1000 m) temperatures for that time are estimated to have been between 15 and 20ºC, which is far warmer than modern day deep water termperatures averaging less than 2ºC. This “Supergreenhouse” climate marks the most extreme global warmth known to have occurred during the past 250 million years, supporting growth of lush forests, large dinosaurs and other temperature sensitive organisms at both poles. It probably resulted from much higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that were expelled into the atmosphere during a long period of undersea volcanic activity.

Short-term (<3 million years) stable isotope data provide a higher resolution record of ocean and climate change. Such studies enable better understanding of the rates of biotic, climatic and oceanic response to external forcing and help identify what those forcing mechanisms were. One example is presented for the Aptian/Albian boundary interval from ODP Site 1049 on Blake Nose. In this detailed oxygen and carbon isotope record, the diamonds represent isotopic values from benthic foraminifera and the other symbols represent different species of planktonic foraminifera. The data reveal several interesting new insights: (1) there was much greater short-term variation of climate and ocean change than was previously recognized; (2) the vertical temperature gradient was quite low with the exception of the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b, which is represented by a black shale in the lower Albian; (3) stable isotope values of several planktonic species plot with co-occurring benthic suggesting that either they lived below the surface mixed layer or the isotopic composition of their shells was not in equilibrium with the isotopic composition of the surrounding water. The abrupt carbon isotopic shift at the Aptian/Albian boundary coincides with the extinction of several long-lived Aptian species and their replacement by low diversity, small-sized species with simpler shell morphologies. The cause of the isotopic shift and species turnover is the focus of current investigations.

The Cretaceous/Tertiary Extinction and Recovery

Evidence that links mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous Period in both marine and terrestrial extinctions with the impact of a ten kilometer diameter asteroid at the Chicxulub Crater (Yucatan Peninsula) is overwhelming. Nonetheless, some researchers have argued that other factors played a significant role in causing planktonic foraminiferal extinctions below and above the boundary level. Using a variety of methods, including foraminiferal species abundance counts, measurements of shell size/mass ratios, stable oxygen and carbon isotopes analyses, and strontium isotope analyses, my study of several complete Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary has demonstrated that (1) the pre-boundary extinction rate is not unusually high; (2) the greatest change in population structure, specimen size distributions, and species composition exactly coincide with deposition of a single asteroid impact layer; (3) post-K/T occurrences of all but three Cretaceous species can be attributed to reworking (based on comparative analysis of foraminiferal shell geochemistry across the boundary interval), and (4) planktonic foraminifera suffered a 92% extinction rate, which is the highest in their entire evolutionary history.

Field Studies in Tanzania.

During the past several years I have joined Paul Pearson (University of Cardiff) and other members of the Tanzania Drilling Project (TDP) to obtain sediment samples from southeastern Tanzania where impermeable, clay-rich intervals yield some of the world’s best preserved tropical foraminifera of Cretaceous through Oligocene age. Using a portable drilling rig the TDP has been able to obtain cores with much greater stratigraphic continuity and better preservation than is possible from the sampling of outcrops. Core description, core sampling, microfossil processing and foraminiferal species identification are routinely done at the rig location. Acquisition of pristinely preserved foraminifera is highly desirable for paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies as the chemistry of their shells has not been altered from the original composition. The goal is to obtain oxygen isotope data that can be used to estimate surface and deep water temperatures at low latitudes for reconstruction of Cretaceous latitudinal temperature gradients and for interpretation of the depth ecology of Cretaceous planktonic foraminifer species.

Professional Experience

  • 1981 - 1984 Research Assistant, Institute of Polar Studies, Ohio State University. 
  • 1984 - Aug. 1985 Amoco Doctoral Fellow, Department of Geology & Mineralogy, Ohio State University.
  • Fall 1985 Historical Geology Instructor, Department of Geology & Mineralogy, Ohio State University.
  • Jan. 1986 - Sept. 1986 Research Assistant, Byrd Polar Research Center. 
  • Fall 1986 - Summer 1987 University Presidential Fellow, Department of Geology & Mineralogy, Ohio State University.
  • Fall 1987 Introduction to Geology Instructor, Department of Geology & Mineralogy, Ohio State University. 
  • Winter 1988 Ocean Drilling Program Leg 119 Foraminifer Paleontologist. 
  • Nov. 1989 - Feb. 1990 Assistant Curator, GS-11, Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution.
  • Feb. 1990 - June 1991 Assistant Curator, GS-12, Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution.
  • 1991 - 1998 Adjunct Professor, Department of Geology, University of Pennsylvania.
  • June 1991 - Sept. 1994 Associate Curator, GS-13, Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution.
  • 1992 - 1999 Adjunct Professor, Department of Geology, University of Nebraska.
  • Sept. 1994 – Nov. 1999 Associate Curator, GS-14, Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution.
  • Winter 1997 Ocean Drilling Program Leg 171B Foraminifer Paleontologist
  • Nov. 1999 – present Curator, GS-15, Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution.
  • 2000 – 2001 Adjunct Professor, Department of Geological Sciences, The Ohio State University
  • Oct. 2010– present Chairman, Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution

Awards, Offices, Activities, and Honors

  • 1984-85  Amoco Doctoral Fellowship in Micropaleontology
  • 1986-87 University Presidential Doctoral Fellowship
  • 1990...   Board of Directors, Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research
  • 1992-93 President, Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research
  • 1994-99 Lead Curator, DSDP/ODP Micropaleontological Reference Centers
  • 1998… Board of Directors, Micropaleontology Press
  • 1997... Secretary, Paleogene Planktic Foraminifer Working Group
  • 1991-96 Panel Member, Information Handling Panel, Ocean Drilling Program
  • 1991-96 Liaison, Ocean History Panel, Ocean Drilling Program
  • 1997-99 Panel Member, Scientific Measurements Panel, Ocean Drilling Program
  • 1994-98 Voting Member, International Subcommission on Paleogene Stratigraphy
  • 2001... Member, NSF-sponsored Chronostratigraphic Database Steering Committee
  • 2003-05 Member, NSF-CHRONOS Board of Directors
  • 2005… Voting Member, International Subcommission on Cretaceous Stratigraphy
  • 2005-06 President, Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research
  • 2006… IODP Micropaleontology Working Group
  • 2008 NSF Critical Intervals in the History of Life Workshop, Denver, CO
  • 2010-11 NSF-sponsored DETELO(N) Planning Group, Washington, DC

Journal Editorship

  • 1997-2005 Board of Editors, Micropaleontology
  • 2003… Associate Editor, Cretaceous Research
  • 2006-09 Associate Editor, Geology
  • 2006-09 Associate Editor, Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana
  • 2009... Associate Editor, Lethaia
  • 2009... Co-Editor, Journal of Paleontology

Professional Societies

  • Patron, Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research
  • Member, Paleontological Society of Washington
  • Member, North American Micropaleontological Society
  • Member, American Geophysical Union
  • Member, Society for Sedimentary Geology
  • Member, Geological Society of America
  • Member, British Micropaleontological Society

Research Assistants, Current and Former Post-doctoral Fellows, and Students

Smithsonian Undergraduate Interns

  • 1992 Consuelo Marino, "Taxonomy and isotopic analysis of late Campanian to Maastrichtian planktonic foraminifera: ODP Leg 122 Hole 761B and DSDP Site 217".
  • 1992 Jennifer Olsen, "Taxonomic and isotopic approach to the paleoclimate history of the Maastrichtian Indian Ocean"
  • 1993 Valerie Cheshier, "The paleohabitat and morphology of several extinct Paleocene, Eocene, and Miocene foraminifera"
  • 1993 Sally Adkins, "The isotopic paleobiology of Bifarina alabamensis"
  • 1994 Joshua Dembsky, "A biometric analysis of Globigerinelloides"
  • 1996-97 Ryan Houston, "Stable isotope analysis of Late Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the evolution of algal endosymbiosis"
  • Molly Markey, “Planktic foraminifer assemblage and stable isotopic changes across the Aptian/Albian boundary oceanic anoxic event”
  • Diana Thiel, “Terminal Cretaceous climate, paleoceanography, and biotic change”
  • Jocelyn Sessa, “Anoxic events and foraminifer evolution across the Albian/Cenomanian boundary”
  • Diana Chapa: “Cretaceous planktonic foraminiferal image database”
  • Laura Holladay: “Ontogenetic biometric comparison of planktonic foraminifera using x-radiograph image analysis”
  • 2001 Karine Reiter: “Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b at Falkland Plateau Site 511”
  • Heather McCarren: “Phylogeny and depth ecology of the Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifer species of Globigerinelloides
  • Nancy Price: “Planktonic foraminiferal turnover and paleoceanographic change across the Aptian-Albian boundary in the subtropical North Atlantic”
  • Erin Saupe: “Ontogenetic biometrics of Late Cretaceous Heterohelix rajagopalani and Gublerina cuvillieri (planktonic foraminifera)”
  • Fenix Garcia-Tigreros: “Blake Nose benthic foraminiferal record: Implications for North Atlantic Maastrichtian ocean structure”
  • 2007 Aleeza Harburger: “Late Cretaceous planktonic and benthic foraminifera from the southeast costal region of Tanzania”
  • 2008 Kristine Adams: “Cretaceous-aged foraminifera from Tanzania and their contribution towards understanding past oceans”
  • 2009 Carlos Peredo: “Relative abundance changes across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary in Tanzania Drilling Project cores”
  • 2010 Carlos Rodriguez-Russo: “Exploring climate change and ocean dynamics during the mid-Cretaceous Supergreenhouse through foraminiferal stable isotopic analysis”
  • 2010 Sarah Ehlinger: “Death, burial, and diagenesis in Tanzanian host sediments: A close look at benthic foraminiferal shell geochemistry”
  • 2010 Erin Jacobs: “Grain size analysis of Turonian sediments from coastal Tanzania”
  • 2011 Benn Breeden: “Stable isotope analyses of Turonian foraminifera from Tanzania”
  • 2011 Christopher Smith: “Stable isotope analyses of Turonian foraminifera from Tanzania”

Smithsonian Predoctoral Fellows

  • 1992 January-March: Jim Pospichal, "Maastrichtian-Danian calcareous nannoplankton biogeography: implications for paleoceanography at the K/T boundary transition".
  • 1998 August-December: Helen Coxall, “The evolution and taxonomic status of hantkeninid foraminifera morphospecies”
  • 2010 September-December: Francesca Falzoni, “Assessing the diagenetic alteration of wall structure in some Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera”

Smithsonian Postdoctoral Fellows

  • 1990-91 Dr. Elena Tabachnich: "The structure of morphologic variation among Recent Globorotalia (planktonic foraminifera)".
  • 1991-92 Dr. Joen Widmark: "Deep-sea and nearshore benthic foraminiferal extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary".
  • 1993-96 Dr. Kenneth MacLeod: "Inoceramid bivalves and Late Cretaceous paleoceanographic change".
  • 1999-01 Dr. Nataliya Tur: “Late Cretaceous paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic changes inferred from planktonic foraminiferal stable isotopic analyses and population turnover”
  • 2004 Dr. Maria Rose Petrizzo: “Paleoceanography of the late Albian-early Cenomanian in the western North Atlantic Ocean”
  • 2004 Dr. Helen Coxall:  “Late Paleocene planktonic foraminiferal paleocologies and sea-surface temperatures A study using exquisitely preserved foraminifera from Tanzania Drilling Project Site 10”
  • 2004-05 Dr. Atsushi Ando: “Paleoceanography of the Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event, western Pacific Ocean”
  • 2005-06 Dr. Marius D. Georgescu: “Evolution and phylogeny of Cretaceous serial planktonic foraminifera”
  • 2007… Dr. Sreepat Jain: “The Blake Nose benthic foraminiferal record: implications for North Atlantic Maastrichtian ocean structure, paleoproductivity and diversity”
  • 2009… Dr. Ines Wendler: “Benthic foraminiferal biofacies and paleoenvironmental change during the Turonian: Results from the Tanzanian Drilling Program”
  • 2009… Dr. Jens Wendler: “Temperature Variability and paleo-ecological Changes during the Cenomanian-Turonian Supergreenhouse”
  • 2011 Dr. Jocelyn Sessa: “Link between climatic and faunal change in Late Cretaceous through Paleogene mollusc-dominated assemblages of the Coastal Plain”
  • 2011… Dr. Atsushi Ando: “Cenomanian paleoceanography of the Indian and Pacific oceans based on integrated chemo- and biostratigraphy”

Undergraduate Student Advisor

  • 2005-06 Chelsea Brothers: “Ontogenetic morphometric analysis of Late Cretaceous species of Heterohelix and Laeviheterohelix (planktonic foraminifera): Taxonomic and phylogenetic implications”
  • 2007 Aleeza Harburger: “Cretaceous Foraminifera from the Zoe C BH Borehole, Tanzania”
  • 2009… Shannon Haynes: “Evolution and phylogeny of Turonian biserial planktic foraminifera in the western Indian Ocean”

Graduate Student Advisor

  • 1998… Wojtek Majewski (The Ohio State University): “Middle Miocene warming event and planktic foraminifera from the Kerguelen Plateau, southern Indian Ocean”
  • 2005-09 Carolina Isaza (University of Missouri at Columbia: “Paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic controls on cyclostratigraphic variations in planktic Maastrichtian foraminiferal populations”

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Publications


A searchable database of publications that are available in PDF format for downloading can be found here.

Edited Journals, Books and Monographs

Olsson, R.K., Berggren, W.A., Hemleben, C., and Huber, B.T. (editors), 1999, Atlas of Paleocene Planktonic foraminifera. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 85:1-252.

Huber, B.T., Bralower, T.J., and Leckie, R.M. (guest editors), 1999, Theme Issue--Paleoecological and Geochemical Signatures of Cretaceous Anoxic Events: A Tribute to William V. Sliter, Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 29, p. 313-499.

Huber, B.T., MacLeod, K.G., Wing, S.L. (editors), 2000, Warm Climates in Earth History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 444 pp.

Huber, B.T., (editor), 2000, Paleontologists in Academia and Industry: Geotimes, October Issue, v. 45.

Pearson, P.N., Olsson, R.K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B.T., and Berggren, W.A., 2006, Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication: Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, p. 1-513.

Peer-reviewed Journals

Huber, B.T. and P.N. Webb, 1986, Distribution of Frondicularia rakauroana Finlay in the southern high latitudes: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 16(2):135-140.

Barrera, E., Huber, B.T., Savin, S.M. and Webb, P.N., 1987, Antarctic marine temperatures: Late Campanian through early Paleocene: Paleoceanography, 2(1):21-47.

Macellari, C.E., R.A. Askin and B.T. Huber., 1987, El limité Cretácico/Tertiario en la Peninsula Antarctica: X Congreso Geologico Argentino, Tucuman, v. 36, p. 220-236.

Huber, B.T., 1988, Upper Campanian-Paleocene foraminifera from the James Ross Island region (Antarctic Peninsula): in Feldmann, R.M. and M.O. Woodburne (eds.), Geology and Paleontology of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, Geological Society of America, Memoir Series 169, p. 163-252.

Huber, B.T., 1990, Maestrichtian planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of the Maud Rise (Weddell Sea, Antarctica), ODP Leg 113 Holes 689B and 690C. In Barker, P.F., Kennett, J.P., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 113: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 489-513.

Barrera, E., and Huber, B.T., 1990, Evolution of Antarctic waters during the Maestrichtian: foraminifer oxygen and carbon isotope ratios, ODP Leg 113: in Barker, P.F., Kennett, J.P. et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 113: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 813-823.

Thomas, E., Barrera, E., Hamilton, N. Huber, B.T., Kennett, J.P., O'Connell, S., Pospichal, J.J., Spiess, J., Stott, L.D., Wei, W., and Wise, S.W., Jr., 1990, Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene stratigraphy of Sites 689 and 690, Maud Rise (Antarctica): in Barker, P.F., Kennett, J.P. et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 113: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 901-914.

Huber, B.T., 1991, Foraminiferal biogeography of the Late Cretaceous southern high latitudes. In Thomson, M.R.A., and Crame, J.A. (Eds.), Geological Evolution of Antarctica, Cambridge University Press (London), p. 609-615.

Huber, B.T., 1991, Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of Campanian-Maestrichtian sediments from ODP Leg 114 Sites 698 and 700, southern South Atlantic. In Ciesielski, P.F., Kristoffersen, Y. et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Res., College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 114:281-297.

Huber, B.T., 1991, Maestrichtian planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at ODP Hole 738C (Kerguelen Plateau, southern Indian Ocean). In: J. A. Barron, B.L. Larsen, et al., Proc. ODP Sci. Results, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, 451-465.

Huber, B.T., 1991, Paleogene and early Neogene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of ODP Leg 119 Sites 738 and 744, Kerguelen Plateau (southern Indian Ocean). In: J. A. Barron, B.L. Larsen, et al., Proc. ODP Sci. Results,  Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, 119:427-449.

Barrera, E. and Huber, B.T., 1991, Paleogene and early Neogene oceanography in the southern Indian Ocean: Leg 119, foraminifer stable isotope results. In: J. A. Barron, Larsen, B. et al., Proc. ODP Sci. Results,  Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, 119:693-717.

Schmitz, B., Asaro, F., Michel, H.V., Thierstein, H.R., and Huber, B.T., 1991, Element stratigraphy across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in Hole 738C: in Barron, J., Larsen, B. et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Res.,  College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 119:719-730.

Thierstein, H.R., Asaro, F., Ehrmann, W.U., Huber, B.T., Michel, H., Sakai, H., and Schmitz, B.,1991, The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary at Site 738, South Kerguelen Plateau: in Barron, J., Larsen, B. et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Res., College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 119:849-867.

Huber, B.T., 1992, Paleobiogeography of Campanian-Maastrichtian foraminifers in the high southern latitudes. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 92:325-360.

Huber, B.T., 1992, Upper Cretaceous planktic foraminiferal biozonation for the Austral Realm. Marine Micropaleontology, 20:107-128.

Pospichal, J.J. and Huber, B.T., 1992, The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the southern Indian Ocean: results from the coring operations of the Ocean Drilling Program: in Kidd, R.B. and Rea, D.K. (eds.), Synthesis of Results from Scientific Drilling in the Indian Ocean, Geophysical Monograph, 70: 275-294.

Huber, B.T. and Watkins, D.K., 1992, Biogeography of Campanian-Maastrichtian calcareous plankton in the region of the Southern Ocean: Paleogeographic and paleoclimatic implications: in Kennett, J.P. and Warnke, D.A. (eds.) The Antarctic Paleoenvironment: A Perspective on Global Change, Antarctic Research Series, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 56:31-60.

Barrera, E. and Huber, B.T., 1993, Eocene to Oligocene oceanography and temperatures in the Antarctic Indian Ocean:  in Kennett, J.P. and Warnke, D.A. (eds.) The Antarctic Paleoenvironment: A Perspective on Global Change, vol. II.  Antarctic Research Series, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C, 60:49-65.

Huber, B.T., 1994, Ontogenetic morphometrics of some Late Cretaceous trochospiral planktonic foraminifera from the Austral Realm. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 77:1-85.

Huber, B.T., Liu, C., Olsson, R.K., and Berggren, W.A., 1994, The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary transition in the Antarctic Ocean: comment. Marine Micropaleontology 24:91-99.

Huber, B.T. and Boersma, A., 1994, Cretaceous origination of Zeauvigerina and its relationship to Paleocene biserial planktonic foraminifera. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 24:268-287.

Huber, B.T., Hodell, D.A., Hamilton, C.A., 1995, Mid to Late Cretaceous climate of the southern high latitudes: stable isotopic evidence for minimal equator-to-pole thermal gradients. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 107:1164-1191.

Huber, B.T. and Hodell, D.A., 1996, Middle-Late Cretaceous climate of the southern high latitudes: Stable isotopic evidence for minimal equator-to-pole thermal gradients (Reply). Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 108: 1192-1196.

MacLeod, K.G. and Huber, B.T., 1996, Reorganization of deep ocean circulation accompanying a Late Cretaceous extinction event. Nature, 380:422-425.

MacLeod, K.G. and Huber, B.T., 1996, Strontium isotopic evidence for extensive reworking in sediments spanning the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary at ODP Site 738. Geology, 24:463-466.

Huber, B.T., 1996, Evidence for planktonic foraminifer reworking versus survivorship across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at high latitudes. In Ryder, G., Gartner, S., and Fastovsky, D., eds., The Cretaceous-Tertiary Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History, Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America Special Paper 307, p. 319-334.

MacLeod, K.G., Huber, B.T., and Ward, P.D., 1996, The biostratigraphy and paleogeography of Maastrichtian inoceramids.  In Ryder, G., Gartner, S., and Fastovsky, D., eds., The Cretaceous-Tertiary Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History, Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America Special Paper 307, p. 361-373.

Huber, B.T., Bijma, J., and Spero, H.J., 1996, Blue-water SCUBA collection of planktonic foraminifera, in Lang, M.A. and Baldwin, C.C., eds., Methods and Techniques of Underwater Research: Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences: Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, p. 127-132.

Huber, B.T., Bijma, J., and Darling, K., 1997, Cryptic speciation in the living planktonic foraminifer Globigerinella siphonifera (d’Orbigny). Paleobiology, 23:33-62.

Bijma, J., Hemleben, C., Huber, B.T., Erlenkeuser, H., and Kroon, D., 1998, Experimental determination of the ontogenetic stable isotope variability in two morphotypes of Globigerinella siphonifera (d'Orbigny). Marine Micropaleontology, 35:141-160.

Houston, R.M. and Huber, B.T., 1998, Evidence of photosymbiosis in fossil taxa? Ontogenetic stable isotope trends in some Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera: Marine Micropaleontology, 34:29-46.

Liu, C., Olsson, R.K., and Huber, B.T., 1998, A benthic paleohabitat for Praepararotalia gen. nov. and Antarcticella Loeblich and Tappan: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 28:3-18.

Knappertsbusch, M. W., Huber, B.T., Sanfilippo, A., and DSDP/ODP MRC Curatorial Party, 1998, Micropaleontological Reference Centers: Revista Española de Micropaleontolgía, 30:331-336.

Huber, B.T., 1999, Family Heterohelicidae. In Olsson, R.K., Berggren, W.A., Hemleben, C., and Huber, B.T. (eds.), Atlas of Paleocene Planktonic foraminifera. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, 85:1-252.

D’Hondt, S. and Huber, B.T., 1999, Family Chiloguembelinidae. In Olsson, R.K., Berggren, W.A., Hemleben, C., and Huber, B.T. (eds.), Atlas of Paleocene Planktonic foraminifera. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology,  85:1-252.

Houston, R.M. and Huber, B.T., and Spero, H.J., 1999, Photosymbiosis and ontogenetic d18O and d13C trends in some Maastrichtian planktic foraminifera: A discussion of intraspecific variability and methodology: Marine Micropaleontology, 36:169-188.

Norris, R.D., Huber, B.T., Self-Trail, J., 1999, Synchroneity of the K-T oceanic mass extinction and meteorite impact: Blake Nose, western North Atlantic, Geology, 27:419-422.

Huber, B.T., Leckie, R.M., Norris, R.D., Bralower, T.J., and CoBabe, E., 1999, Foraminiferal assemblage and stable isotopic change across the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary in the subtropical North Atlantic: Journal of Foraminiferal Research. 29:392-417.

Erbacher, J., Hemleben, C., Huber, B.T., and Markey, M., 1999, Correlating environmental changes during early Albian Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b using benthic foraminiferal paleoecology: Marine Micropaleontology, 38:7-28.

MacLeod, K.G., Huber, B.T., and Ducharme, M.L., 2000, Paleontological and geochemical constraints on changes in the deep ocean during the Cretaceous greenhouse interval, in Huber, B.T., MacLeod, K. G., and Wing, S.L., eds., Warm Climates in Earth History: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 241-274.

Bellier, J.-P., Moullade, M., and Huber, B. T., 2000, Mid-Cretaceous planktonic foraminifers from Blake Nose: Revised biostratigraphic framework: In Kroon, D., Norris, R.D., and Klaus, A. (Eds.), Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, v. 171B [Online]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/171B_SR/chap_03/chap_03.htm>.

Erbacher, J., Huber, B.T., Norris, R.D., and Markey, M., 2001,Increased thermohaline stratification as a possible cause for an oceanic anoxic event in the Cretaceous Period: Nature, v. 409, p. 325-327.

MacLeod, K.G. and Huber, B.T., 2001, The Maastrichtian record at Blake Nose (western Atlantic) and implications for press global paleoceanographic and biotic changes: Geological Society of London, Special Publication, no. 183, p. 111-130.

MacLeod, K.G., Huber, B.T., and Fullagar, P.D., 2001, Evidence for a small (~0.000030) but resolvable increase in seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary: Geology, v. 29, p. 303-306.

Norris, R.D., Kroon, D., Huber, B.T., and Erbacher, J., 2001, Cretaceous-Palaeogene ocean and climate change in the subtropical North Atlantic, in Kroon, D., Norris, R. D., and Klaus, A., eds., Western North Atlantic Palaeogene and Cretaceous Palaeoceanography : 183 London, The Geological Society of London, p. 1-22.

MacLeod, K.G., Huber, B.T., Pletsch, T., and Röhl, U. Kucera, M., 2001, Maastrichtian foraminiferal and paleoceanographic changes on Milankovitch time scales: Paleoceanography, v. 16, p. 133-154.

Huber, B.T., Norris, R.D., and MacLeod, K.G., 2002, Deep-sea paleotemperature record of extreme warmth during the Cretaceous: Geology, v. 30, p. 123-126.

Huber, B.T., MacLeod, K.G., and Norris, R.D., 2002,Abrupt extinction and subsequent reworking of Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera across the K/T boundary: Evidence from the subtropical North Atlantic, in Koeberl, C. and MacLeod, K.G., eds., Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions: Impacts and Beyond: Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America Special Paper 356, 277-289.

Wilf, P., Johnson, K. R., and Huber, B.T., 2003, Correlated terrestrial and marine evidence for global climate changes before mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 100, p. 599-604.

Bice, K.L., Huber, B.T., and Norris, R.D., 2003, Extreme polar warmth during the Cretaceous greenhouse? The paradox of the late Turonian d18O record at DSDP Site 511: Paleoceanography, v. 18, 1031, doi:10.1029/2002PA000848.

MacLeod, K.G., Fullagar, P., and Huber, B.T., 2003, 87Sr/86Sr test of the degree of impact-induced slope failure in the Maastrichtian of the western North Atlantic: Geology, v. 31, p. 311-314.

Coxall, H.K., Huber, B.T., and Pearson, P.N., 2004, Origin and morphology of the Eocene planktonic foraminifera Hantkenina: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 33, p. 237-261.

Patterson, T., Fowler, A.D., Huber, B.T., 2004, Evidence of hierarchical organization in the planktic foraminiferal evolutionary record: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 34, p. 85-95.

>Huber, B. T. and Quillévéré, F., 2005, Revised Paleogene planktonic foraminiferal biozonation for the Austral Realm: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 35, p. 299-314.

Patterson, R.T., Fowler, A.D., and Huber, B.T., 2005, Errata: Evidence of hierarchical organization in the planktic foraminiferal evolutionary record: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 35, p. 83.

MacLeod, K. G., Huber, B.T., and Isaza, C., 2005, North Atlantic warming during “global” cooling at the end of the Cretaceous: Geology, v. 33, 437-440.

Huber, B.T., Olsson, R.K., and Pearson, P.N., 2006, Taxonomy of Eocene Microperforate Planktonic Foraminifera (Jenkinsina, Cassigerinelloita, Chiloguembelina, Zeauvigerina, Tenuitella,and Cassigerinella) and Problematica (Dipsidripella and Tenuitella?), in Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K. Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T., and Berggren, W. A. (eds.), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication 41: Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, p. 461-508.

Huber, B.T. and Quillévéré, F., 2006, A revised Antarctic Eocene planktic foraminiferal biozonation , in Pearson, P. N., Olsson, R. K. Hemleben, C., Huber, B. T., and Berggren, W. A. (eds.), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication 41:Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, p. 41-46.

Berggren, W.A., Pearson, P.N., Huber, B.T., and Wade, B.S., 2006, Taxonomy, biostratigraphy and phylogeny of Eocene Acarinina, in Pearson, P.N., Olsson, R.K., Huber, B.T., Berggren, W.A., and Hemleben, C. (eds.), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41: Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, p. 257-326.

Georgescu, M. and Huber, B.T., 2006, Paracostellagerina nov. gen., a meridionally costellate planktonic foraminiferal genus of the middle Cretaceous (late Albian-earliest Cenomanian): Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 36, p. 368-373.

Isaza-Londońo, C., MacLeod, K.G., and Huber, B.T., 2006, Maastrichtian North Atlantic warming, increasing stratification, and foraminiferal paleobiology at three timescales: Paleoceanography, v. 21, PA1012, doi:10.1029/2004PA001130, p. 1-10.

Nicholas, C.J., Pearson, P.J., Bown, P.R., Dunkley Jones, T., Huber, B.T., Karega, A., Lees, J.A., McMillan, I.K., O'Halloran, A., Singano, J.M., and Wade, B.S., 2006, Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene Kilwa Group, southern coastal Tanzania: Journal of African Earth Sciences, v. 45, p. 431-466.

Olsson, R.K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B.T., and Berggren, W.A., 2006, Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Globigerina, Globoturborotalita, Subbotina, and Turborotalita, in Pearson, P.N., Olsson, R.K., Hemleben, C., Huber, B.T., and Berggren, W.A. (eds.), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41: Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, p. 111-168.

Pearson, P.N., Nicholas, C.J., Singano, J.M., Bown, P.R., Coxall, H.K., van Dongen, B.E., Huber, B.T., Karega, A., Lees, J.A., MacLeod, K.G., McMillan, I.K., Pancost, R.D., Pearson, M., and Msaky, E., 2006, Further Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa area of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 6–10 : Journal of African Earth Sciences, v. 45, p. 279-317.

Petrizzo, M.R. and Huber, B.T., 2006, Biostratigraphy and taxonomy of late Albian planktonic foraminifera from ODP Leg 171B (western North Atlantic Ocean): Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 36, p. 166-190.

Petrizzo, M.R. and Huber, B.T., 2006, On the phylogeny of the late Albian genus Planomalina: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 36, p. 233-240.

Takashima, R., Nishi, H., Huber, B.T., and Leckie, R.M., 2006, Greenhouse world and the Mesozoic Ocean: Oceanography, v. 19, p. 82-92.

Ando, A. and Huber, B.T., 2007, Taxonomic revision of the late Cenomanian planktonic foraminifera Rotalipora greenhornensis (Morrow, 1934): Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 37, p. 160-174.

Georgescu, M.D. and Huber, B.T., 2007, Taxonomic revision of the late Campanian-Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) planktonic foraminiferal genus Rugotruncana Brönnimann and Brown, 1956, and a new paleontological species concept for planktonic foraminifera: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 37, p. 150-159.

MacLeod, K.G., Whitney, D., Huber, B.T., and Koeberl, C., 2007, Impact and extinction in remarkably complete K/T boundary sections from Demerara Rise, tropical western North Atlantic: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, v. 119, p. 101-115.

Pucéat, E., Donnadieu, Y., Naveau, P., Cappetta, H., Ramstein, G., Huber, B.T., and Kriwet, J., 2007, Fish tooth d18O revising Late Cretaceous meridional upper ocean water temperature gradients: Geology, v. 35, p. 107-110.

Dutton, A.L., Huber, B.T., Lohmann, K.C., and Zinsmeister, W.J., 2007, High-resolution stable isotope profiles of a dimitobellid belemnite: Implications for paleodepth habitat and late Maastrichtian climate seasonality: Palaois, v. 22, p. 642-650.

Huber, B.T., MacLeod, K.G., and Tur, N., 2008, Late Campanian-Maastrichtian chronostratigraphic framework for Campanian-Maastrichtian sediments on Blake Nose (subtropical North Atlantic): Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 38, p. 162-182.

Petrizzo, M.R., Huber, B.T., Wilson, P.A., and MacLeod, K.G., 2008, Late Albian paleoceanography of the western subtropical North Atlantic: Paleoceanography, PA1213, doi:10.1029/2007PA001517.

Georgescu, M.D. and Huber, B.T., 2008, Taxonomic re-evaluation and phylogeny of the stellate planktonic foraminiferal genus Hastigerinoides Brönnimann, 1952: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 38, p. 52-58.

Georgescu, M.D., Saupe, E., and Huber, B.T., 2008, Morphometric and stratophenetic basis for phylogeny and taxonomy in Late Cretaceous gublerinid planktonic foraminifera: Micropaleontology, v. 54, p. 397-424.

Georgescu, M.D. and Huber, B.T., 2009, Early evolution of the Cretaceous serial planktic foraminifera (late AlbianCenomanian): Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 39, p. 335-360.

Ando, A., Huber, B. T., MacLeod, K. G., Ohta, T., and Khim, B.-K., 2009, Blake Nose stable isotopic evidence against the mid-Cenomanian glaciation hypothesis: Geology, v. 37, p. 451-545, doi: 10.1130/G25580A.

Jiménez Berrocoso, A., MacLeod, K.G., Huber, B.T., Lees, J.A., Mweneinda, A.K., Isaza Londoño, C., Wendler, I., Singano, J.M., and Bown, P.R., 2010, Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 21 to 26: Lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous in the Lindi region: Journal of South African Earth Sciences, v. 57, p. 47-69.

Ando, A., Huber, B.T., and MacLeod, K.G., 2010, Depth-habitat reorganization of planktonic foraminifera across the Albian/Cenomanian boundary: Paleobiology, v. 36, p. 357-373.

Huber, B.T. and Leckie, R.M., 2011, Planktic foraminiferal species turnover across deep-sea Aptian/Albian boundary sections: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 41, p. 53-95.

Huber, B. T. and Leckie, R. M., 2011, Errata: Huber and Leckie, v. 41, no. 1, p. 66: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 41, p. 196.

Huber, B. T., MacLeod, K. G., Gröcke, D., and Kucera, M., 2011, Paleotemperature and paleosalinity inferences and chemostratigraphy across the Aptian/Albian boundary in the subtropical North Atlantic : Paleoceanography, v. 26, p. PA4221, doi:10.1029/2011PA002178.

Wendler, I., Huber, B. T., MacLeod, K. G., and Wendler, J. E., 2011, Early evolutionary history of Tubulogenerina And Colomia: New species from exceptionally preserved Turonian sediments in East Africa: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 41, p. 384-400.

Petrizzo, M. R., Huber, B. T., Gale, A. S., and Barchetta, A., 2012, Abrupt planktic foraminiferal turnover across the Niveau Kilian at Col de Pré-Guittard (Vocontian Basin, southeast France): new criteria for defining the Aptian/Albian boundary: Newsletter on Stratigraphy (in press).

Other Publications

Macellari, C.E. and Huber, B.T., 1982, Cretaceous stratigraphy of Seymour Island (East Antarctic Peninsula): Antarctic Journal of the United States, 17(5):68-70.

Huber, B.T. D.M. Harwood and P.N. Webb., 1983, Upper Cretaceous microfossil biostratigraphy of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula: Antarctic Journal of the United States, 18(5):72-74.

Huber, B.T., 1985, The location of the Cretaceous-Tertiary contact on Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula: Antarctic Journal of the United States, 20(5):46-48.

Huber B.T., 1986, Foraminiferal distribution across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary on Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula: Antarctic Peninsula: Antarctic Journal of the United States, 21(5):71-73.

Huber, B.T., 1987, Ontogenetic morphometrics of some Upper Cretaceous foraminifera from the southern high latitudes: Antarctic Journal of the United States, 22(5):15-17.

Barron, J., Larsen, B. and Shipboard Scientific Party, 1989, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Initial Reports, 171B: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 942 pp.

Huber, B.T., 1990, Book review: Modern Planktonic Foraminifera, C. Hemleben, M. Spindler, and O.R. Anderson, authors. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 20(1):90.

Huber, B.T. 1990, Review of Micropaleontology During 1989. Geotimes, 35(2):41-43.

Huber, B.T., 1991, Review of Micropaleontology During 1990. Geotimes, 36:234-35.

Huber, B.T., 1993, Tiny marine fossil play a role in interpreting past global climate change. Calypso Log, 20:18-19.

Huber, B.T., 1993, Book review: Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists, edited by Jere H. Lipps. Priscum, 3:13.

Boersma, A. and Huber, B.T., 1994, Origins and biogeography of Cretaceous/Tertiary biserial planktonic foraminifera in the southern oceans. Antarctic Journal of the United States, 27(5):109.

Huber, B.T., 1996, Book Review: The Challenger Foraminifera, by Robert Wynn Jones. 1994. Priscum, 6:18.

Norris, R.D., Kroon, D., and Shipboard Scientific Party, 1998, Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Initial Reports, 171B: College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), 749 pp.

Huber, B.T., 1998, Perspective: Tropical paradise at the Cretaceous poles? Science, 282:2199-2200.

Huber, B.T., MacLeod, K.G., and Wing, S.L., 1999, Preface, in Huber, B.T., MacLeod, K. G., and Wing, S.L., eds., Warm Climates in Earth History: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. xi-xvii.

Edwards, L. E., Gohn, G. S., Self-Trail, J. M., Prowell, D.C., Bybell, L.M., Bardot, L.P., Huber, B.T., Frederiksen, N.O., 1998, Physical stratigraphy, paleontology, and magnetostratigraphy of the USGS - Santee Coastal Reserve Core (CHN-803), Dorchester County, South Carolina: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 99-308:1-66.

Huber, B.T., 1998, Deep-sea Drilling, in Earle, S.A., Atlas of the Ocean, National Geographic, Washington, D.C., p. 38-39.

Leckie, R.M. and Huber, B.T., 2002 Joseph A. Cushman Award, Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 33, p. 171-172.

Huber, B.T., 2008, The Supergreenhouse Ocean, in Earle, S.A Ocean and Glover, L.K., An Illustrated Atlas, National Geographic, Washington, D.C., p. 43-44.