Skip to main content.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
{search_item}

Department of Paleobiology

bar
face
  • Martin A. Buzas
  • Curator of Benthic Foraminifera, (Emeritus)
  • Phone:   202-633-1313
  • Fax:   202-786-2832
  • E-mail Address:   buzasm
  • Mailing Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    PO Box 37012, MRC 121
    Washington, DC 20013-7012
  • Shipping Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    National Museum of Natural History
    10th & Constitution NW
    Washington, DC 20560-0121
bar

Education

Ph.D. Yale University, 1963
M.S. Brown University, 1960
B.A. University of Connecticut, 1958

Research Interests

Biodiversity is of central interest to many researchers as well as environmentalists. Unfortunately, because of the confusion generated by a myriad of suggested indices and methodologies, its precise quantitatve measurement remained elusive for decades. The separation of diversity into the two components, species richness (S) and evenness (E), was described as “unsolvable.” A general solution to the problem, regardless of the underlying statistical distribution, was derived with L. C. Hayek. Using the information function (H), we showed how S and E can be mathematically separated into components within the same system. This led to an entirely new approach to the study of diversity called SHE analysis. The methodology allows for a quantitative examination of community structure and is included in the text-book “Surveying Natural Populations” co-authored with L. C. Hayek. Examination of the community structure of benthic populations is now being studied for a variety of modern and fossil populations.

A single station has been monitored in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida for over 30 years. Observations (512 samples) from a full factorial four year experiment at the site are currently being analyzed. The results will provide insight into the dynamics of spatial, seasonal and yearly variation to verify the “pulsating patch” hypothesis as well as the statistical reliability of replicates.

Assistants, Current, and Former Post-doctoral Fellows and Students

Students:

  • J. McCain, Ph.D. GWU, 1967
  • B. Akpati, Ph.D., U.Pitt., 1969
  • J. Jackson, Ph.D., Yale, 1971
  • R. Rye, M.S., GWU, 1971
  • B. Blackwelder, Ph.D., GWU, 1972
  • C. Koch, Ph.D., GWU, 1976
  • J. Bates, M.S., ODU, 1976
  • C. Soukup, M. S., JHU, 1980
  • P. Painter, M. S., ODU, 1982
  • K. Carle, M. S. Clemson, 1982
  • M. Williamson, Ph.D., Dalhousie, 1983
  • P. Gore, Ph.D., GWU, 1983
  • A. Miller, M.S., Dalhousie, 1983
  • A. Gary, M.S., ODU, 1984
  • G. Strickland, M.S., GWU, 1984
  • F. Thomas, Ph.D., Dalhousie, 1985
  • S. Goda, M.S., GWU, 1985
  • V. Kulyk, M.S., GWU, 1987
  • K. Wetmore, Ph.D., JHU, 1988
  • L. Collins, Ph.D., Yale, 1988
  • G. Wingard, Ph.D., GWU, 1990
  • H. J. Woo, Ph.D., ODU, 1992
  • R. Collins, Ph.D., Dalhousie, 1996
  • S. Richardson, Ph.D., Yale, 2000
  • D. J. Vance, M.S., ECU, 2004
  • I. Abbene, M.S., ECU, 2004

Fellows:

  • B. Hayward, 1977
  • S. Culver, 1979
  • M. Erskian, 1980
  • L. Osterman, 1986
  • S. Ishman, 1985
  • L. Collins, 1988; R. Aronson, 1989
  • S. Richardson, 2001
  • Charu Sharma, 2002

Positions Held :

  • Associate Curator, Smithsonian Institution, 1963-1969
  • Curator, Smithsonian Institution, 1969-present
  • Supervisor, Division of Invertebrate Paleontology, 1968-1970
  • Chairman, Department of Paleobiology, 1977-1982
  • Senior Geologist, Smithsonian Institution, 1992-present
  • Associate Professorial Lecturer, George Washington University, 1965-1978
  • Adjunct Professor, George Washington University, 1978-1992
  • Adjunct Professor, Johns Hopkins University, 1978-1984
  • Adjunct Professor, Clemson University, 1981-1982
  • Adjunct Professor, Old Dominion University, 1983-present
  • Visiting Investigator, Systematics Ecology Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, 1966-1971
  • Board of Directors, Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 1971-present
  • Associate Editor, Paleobiology, 1975-1982
  • Editorial Board, Alan Hancock Foundation, 1977-present

Professional Societies

  • Paleontological Society
  • Paleontological Society of Washington, Secretary 1965-66, Vice President 1968-69, President 1974-75
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science, Fellow
  • Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Fellow, Vice President 1978-79, President 1981-82
  • North American Micropaleontology Section of the Society of Economic
    Paleontologists and Mineralogists, President elect 1987-88, President 1988-89
  • Chairman, North American Paleontological Convention, 1996

Honors and Awards:

  • D. N Clarke Fellow, Yale 1960-61
  • Pan American Petroleum Foundation Fellow, Yale 1961-63
  • Prize best dissertation defense, Yale 1963
  • Letter of commendation for contributions to the Marine Sciences Council from Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President 1968
  • Certificate of Award and Appreciation of exceptional services rendered, Smithsonian Institution, 1971
  • Letter of commendation from Robert Brooks, Under Secretary Smithsonian Institution, 1980
  • Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Fellow, 1973
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science, Fellow, 1980
  • Paleontological Society, Fellow, 2005
  • “Surveying Natural Populations” listed as a Classic in Biology, 2001
  • Sigma Xi Helms Award for Large Impact Paper, 2002
  • Joseph A. Cushman Award for Outstanding Achievement in Foraminiferal Research, 2004
  • Paleontological Society Medal, 2004

Publications


Papers

1964    McAlester, A. L., Speden, I. G. and Buzas, M. A., Ecologyof Pleistocene mollusks from Martha's Vineyard -a reconstruction. J. Paleontology, v.38,p.985-991.

1965    Buzas, M. A., Foraminifera from late Pleistocene clay nearWaterville, Maine. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., v.145, no. 9,p.1-30

1966    Buzas, M. A., The discrimination of morphological groups ofElphidium (foraminifer) in Long Island Sound through canonicalanalysis and invariant characters. J. Paleontology, v.40,p.585-594.

1967    Buzas, M. A., An application of canonical analysis as amethod of comparing faunal areas. J. Animal Ecology,v.36, p.563-577.

1968    Buzas, M. A., Foraminifera from the Hadley Harbor complex,Massachusetts. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., v.152, no.8, p.1-26.

1968    Buzas, M. A., On the spatial distribution of Foraminifera. Contrib.. Cushman Found. Foram. Res., v.19,p.1-11.

1968    Mello, J. F.,and Buzas, M. A. An application of cluster analysisas a method of determining biofacies. J. Paleontology, v.42,p.747-758.

1969    Buzas, M. A., and Gibson, T. G., Species diversity: benthonicForaminifera in Western North Atlantic. Science, v.163,p.72-75.

1969    Buzas, M. A., Foraminiferal species densities and environmentalvariables in an estuary. Limnol. & Oceanog., v.14,p.411-422.

1970    Buzas, M. A., On the quantification of biofacies. Computersin Paleontology, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, p.101-116.

1970    Buzas, M. A., Spatial homogeneity: statistical analyses of unispecies and multispecies populations of Foraminifera. Ecology, v.51, p.874-879.

1971    Buzas, M. A., Analyses of species densities by the multivariategeneral linear model. Limnol. & Oceanog., v.16,p.667-670.

1972    Buzas, M. A., Biofacies analysis of presence or absence datathrough canonical variate analysis. J. Paleontology, v.46,p.55-57.

1972    Buzas, M. A., Patterns of species diversity and their explanation.Taxon, v.21, p.275-286.

1972    Buzas, M. A., Foraminifera of the Chesapeake Bay. ChesapeakeScience, v.114, Supplement, p.97-98.

1973    Gibson, T. G., and Buzas, M. A., Species diversity: patterns inmodern and Miocene Foraminifera of the Eastern Margin of NorthAmerica. Geol. Soc. America Bull., v.84, p.217-238.

1974    Buzas, M. A., Vertical distribution of Ammobaculities in theRhode River, Maryland. J. Foram. Res., v.4, p.144-147.

1976    Feyling-Hanssen, R. W., and Buzas, M. A., Emendation ofCassidulina and Islandiella helenae new species. J. Foram.Res., v.6, p.154-158.

1976    Young, D. K., Buzas, M. A. and Young, M. W., Species densitiesof macrobenthos associated with seagrass: a field experimentalstudy of predation. J. Mar. Res., v.34, p.577-592.

1977    Buzas, M. A., Vertical distribution of Foraminifera in theIndian River, Florida. J. Foram. Res., v.7, p.234-237.

1978    Buzas, M. A., Foraminifera as prey for benthic deposit feeders:results of predator exclusion experiments. J. Mar. Res., v.36,                                   p.617-625.

1978    Buzas, M. A., Community unity? patterns in molluscs and foraminifera. In: Wiley, M. L. (ed.), Estuarine interactions.Academic Press, Inc., New York, p.173-190.

1979    Buzas, M. A., The measurement of species diversity. In: Lipps, J.H.,Berger, W. H., Buzas, M. A., Douglas, R. G. and Ross, C. A.,Foraminiferal ecology and paleoecology. Society of EconomicPaleontologists and Mineralogists, Houston, Short Course no.6, p.3-10.

 1979    Buzas, M. A., Quantitative biofacies analysis. Ibid, p.11-20.

 1979    Buzas, M. A., and Carle, K., Predators of Foraminifera in theIndian River, Florida. J. Foram. Res., v.9, p.336-340.

 1980    Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J., Foraminifera: distribution ofprovinces in the Western North Atlantic. Science, v.209, p.687-689.

 1981    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Recent benthic Foraminiferal provinces on the Atlantic Continental Margin of North America.J. Foram. Res., v.11, p.217-240.

1981    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Foraminifera: distribution ofprovinces in the Gulf of Mexico. Nature, v.290, p.328-329. (cover)

1981    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Distribution of selected Recentbenthic Foraminiferal genera in the Western North Atlantic. In:Neale, J. W., and Brasier, M. D., (eds.), Microfossils fromRecent Shelf Seas. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England, p.336-349.

1982    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Recent benthic Foraminiferalprovinces between Newfoundland and Yucatan. Geol. Soc. AmericaBull., v.93, p.269-277.

1982    Buzas, M. A., Regulation of Foraminiferal densities by predationin the Indian River, Florida. J. Foram. Res., v.12, p.66-71.

1982    Buzas, M. A., Koch, C. F., Culver, S. J. and Sohl, N. F., Onthe distribution of species occurrence. Paleobiology, v.8p.143-150.

1982    Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J., Biogeography of modern benthicForaminifera. In: Foraminifera notes for a short course organizedby Buzas, M. A., and Sen Gupta, B. K. T. W. Broadhead, (ed.),U. Tennessee Studies in Geology, no.6, p.90-106.

1982    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Recent benthic Foraminiferalprovinces between Newfoundland and Yucatan: Reply. Geol. Soc.America Bull., v.93, p.1061-1062.

1983    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Recent benthic Foraminiferalprovinces in the Gulf of Mexico. J. Foram. Res., v.13, p.21-31.

1983    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Benthic Foraminifera at theshelfbreak: North American Atlantic and Gulf margins. SEPMSpl. Pub. no.33, p.359-371.

1984    Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J., Species duration and evolution:benthic Foraminifera on the Atlantic continental margin of NorthAmerica. Science, v.225, p.829-830. 

1985    Buzas, M. A., Culver, S. J. and Isham, L. B., A comparisonof fourteen elphidiid (Foraminiferida) taxa. J. Paleontology,v,59, p.1075-1090.

1986    Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J., Geographic origin of benthicForaminiferal species. Science, v.232, p.775-776. (cover) < />
1986    Smith, R. K., and Buzas, M. A., Microdistribution of Foraminiferain a single bed of the Monterey Formation, Monterey, California.Smbrithsonian Contrib.. Paleo., no.60, p.1-33.

1987    Buzas, M. A., and Behrensmeyer, A. K., Ecology-Paleoecology.In: Boardman, R. S., Cheetham, A. H. and Rowell, A. J. (eds.).Fossil Invertebrates. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford,England, Palo Alto, California, p.19-28.

1987    Buzas, M. A., Kingdom Protista. Ibid, p.67-72.

1987    Buzas, M. A. Smaller Foraminifera. Ibid, p.72-81.

1987    Culver, S. J., Buzas, M. A. and Collins, L. S., On thevalue of taxonomic standardization in evolutionary studies.Paleobiology. v.13, p.169-176.

1989    Buzas, M. A., Collins, L. S., Richardson, S. L. and Severin,K. P., Experiments on predation, substrate preference, andcolonization of benthic Foraminifera at the shelfbreak offthe Ft. Pierce Inlet, Florida. J. Foram. Res., v.19, p.146-152.

1989    Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J., Biogeographic and evolutionary patterns of continental margin benthicForaminifera. Paleobiology, v. 15, p. 11-19.

1989   Buzas, M. A., The effect of quartz versus calcareous sand onthe density of living Foraminifera. Micropaleo., v. 35,p. 135-141.

1990   Buzas, M. A., and Gibson, T. G., Spatial distribution of MioceneForaminifera at Calvert Cliffs, Maryland. Smithsonian Contrib..Paleo., no. 68, p. 1-35.

1990   Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J., Recent benthic Foraminifera Provinces on the Pacific continental margin of North America. J. Foram. Res., v, 20, p. 326-335.

1990   Buzas, M. A., Another look at confidence limits for species proportions. J. Paleontology, v. 64, p. 842-843.

1991   Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J., Species diversity and dispersal of benthic Foraminifera. BioScience, v. 41, p. 483-489.

1993   Buzas, M. A., Culver, S. J., and Jorissen, F. J., A statistical evaluation of the microhabitats of living (stained) infaunal benthic Foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology, v. 20, p. 311-320.

1993   Buzas, M. A., and Severin, K. P., Foraminiferal densities and pore water chemistry in the Indian River, Florida. Smithsonian Contrib.. Marine Sci., no. 36, p. 1-38.

1993   Buzas, M. A., Colonization rate of Foraminifera in the Indian River, Florida. J. Foram. Res., v. 23, p. 156-161.

1994   Jorissen, F. J., Buzas, M. A., Culver, S. J., and Kuehl S. A., Vertical distribution of living benthic Foraminifera in submarine canyons off New Jersey. J. Foram. Res., v. 24, p. 28-36.

1994   Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J., Species pool and dynamics of marine paleocommunities. Science, v. 264, p. 1439-1441.

1995   Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., The effects of anthropogenic habitat disturbance, habitat destruction, and global warming on shallow marine benthic Foraminifera. J. Foram. Res. v. 25, p. 204-211.

1996   Schafer, C. T., Cole, F. E., Frobel, D., Rice, N., and Buzas, M. A., An in situ experiment on temperature sensitivity of nearshore temperate benthic Foraminifera. J. Foram. Res. v. 26, p. 53-63.

1996   Buzas, M. A., and Hayek, L. C. Biodiversity resolution: an Integrated approach. Biodiversity Letters, v. 3, p. 40-43.

1996   Culver, S. J., Woo, H. J., Oertel, G. F., and Buzas, M. A., Foraminifera of coastal depositional environments, Virginia, U.S.A.: distribution and taphonomy. Palaios, v. 11, p. 459-486.

1998   Buzas, M. A., and Hayek, L. C. SHE analysis for biofacies identification. J. Foram. Res. V. 28, p. 233-239.

1998   Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J. Assembly, disassembly, and balance in Marine paleocommunities. Palaios, v. 13, p. 263-275.

1998   Hayek, L. C., and Buzas, M. A. SHE analysis: an integrated approach to The analysis of forest biodiversity. In: Dallmeier, F., and Comiskey, J. eds. Forest biodiversity research, monitoring and modeling. UNESCO and Parthenon  Publishing Group, Paris, p. 311-321.

1998   Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A. Patterns of occurrence of benthic Foraminifera in time and space. In: Donovan, S. K., and  Paul, C. R. C. Eds. The Adequacy of the fossil record. John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 207-226.

1999  Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A. Biogeography of Neritic benthic foraminifera. In: Sen Gupta, B. K. Ed., Modern Foraminifera. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, p. 93-102.

1999  Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J. Understanding regional species diversity Through the log series distribution of occurrences. Diversity and Distributions V. 8, p. 187-195.

2000  Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A. Global latitudinal species diversity Gradient in deep-sea foraminifera. Deep-sea Research v. 147, p. 259-275.

2000    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A. Response of shallow  water foraminiferal Palaeocommunities to global and regional environmental change. In: Culver, S. J., and Rawson, P. F., Eds., Biotic response to global change. Cambridge  U. Press, Cambridge, p. 122-134.

2000    Buzas, M. A., and Hayek, L. C. A case for long-term monitoring of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Foraminiferal densities, 1977-1996. Bull. Mar. Sci. v. 67, p. 805-814.

2001    Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J. On the relationship between species distribution-abundance-occurrence and species duration. Hist. Biol. v. 15, p. 251-259.
2002   Buzas, M. A., Hayek, L. C., Reed, S. A., and Jett, J. A. Foraminiferal Densities over five years in the Indian River, Lagoon, Florida: A model of pulsating patches. J. Foram. Res. v. 32, p. 68-92.

2002   Buzas, M. A., Collins, L. S., and Culver, S. J. Latitudinal difference in                   biodiversity caused by higher tropical rate of increase. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. V. 99, p. 7841-7843.

2002 Osterman, L. E., Buzas, M. A., and Hayek, L. C. SHE analysis for biozonation of benthic foraminiferal assemblages from western Arctic Ocean. Palaios, v.17, p. 297-303.

2003 Hayward, B. W., Buzas, M. A., Buzas-Stephens, P., and Holzmann, M. The lost types of Rotalia beccarii var. tepida Cushman 1926. J. Foram. Res. v. 33, p. 252-254.

2004 Buzas, M. A., and Culver, S. J. Time components of communities. J. Foram. Res. v. 34, p. 1-8.

2004 Buzas, M. A. Community structure of foraminifera from two Miocene beds At Calvert Cliffs, Maryland. J. Foram. Res., v. 34, p. 208-213.

2005 Buzas, M. A., and Hayek, L. C. On richness and evenness within and between communities. Paleobiology, v. 31, p. 199-220.

2005 Buzas, M. A. Response by Martin A. Buzas for the Paleontological Society Medal, November 4, 2004. J. Paleontology, v. 79, p. 826-827.

2005 Buzas-Stephens, P., and Buzas, M. A. Population dynamics and dissolutionof foraminifera in Nueces Bay, Texas. J. Foram. Res., v. 35, p. 248-258.

2006 Vance, D. J., Culver, S. J., Corbett, D. R., and Buzas, M. A. Foraminifera In the Albemarle estuarine system, North Carolina: Distribution and Recent Environmental change. J. Foram. Res., v. 36, p. 15-33.

2006 Abbene, I. J., Culver, S. J., Corbett, D. R., Buzas, M. A. and Tully, L. S. Distribution of foraminifera in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, over the past Century. J. Foram. Res., v. 36, p. 135-151.

2006 Hayek, L. C., and Buzas, M. A. The martyrdom of St. Lucie: Decimation of a meiofauna. Bull. Marine Science, v. 79, p. 341-352.

2007 Hayek, L. C., Buzas, M. A., and Osterman, L. E., Community structure of foraminiferal communities within temporal biozones from the western Arctic ocean. J. Foram. Res., v. 37, p. 33-40.

Books

1965    Buzas, M. A., The distribution and abundance of foraminifera in Long Island Sound. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., v,149,  no.1, 89p.

1977    Buzas, M. A., Smith, R. K. and Beem, K. A., Ecology and systematics of Foraminifera in two Thalassia habitats,Jamaica, West Indies. Smithsonian Contrib.. Paleo. no.31,139p.

1979    Hayward, B., and Buzas, M. A., Taxonomy and paleoecology of EarlyMiocene benthic Foraminifera of Northern New Zealand and the North Tasman sea. Smithsonian Contrib.. Paleo. no.36, 154p.

1980    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Distribution of Recent benthicForaminifera off the North American Atlantic coast. SmithsonianContrib.. Mar. Sci., no.6, 512p.

1981    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Distribution of Recent BenthicForaminifera in the Gulf of Mexico. Smithsonian Contrib.. Mar.Sci., no.8, 898p.

1982    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Distribution of Recent benthicForaminifera in the Caribbean area. Smithsonian Contrib.. Mar.Sci., no.14, 382p.

1982    Buzas, M. A., and Severin, K. P., Distribution and systematicsof Foraminifera in the Indian River, Florida. Smithsonian Contrib..Mar. Sci., no.16, 73p.

1985    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Distribution of Recent Foraminifera off the North American Pacific coast from Oregon to Alaska. Smithsonian Contrib.. Mar. Sci. no.26,234p.

1986    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Distribution of Recent Foraminifera off the North American Pacific coast from California to Baja. Smithsonian Contrib.. Mar. Sci., no.28,634p.

1987    Culver, S. J., and Buzas, M. A., Distribution of Recent benthicForaminifera off the Pacific coast of Mexico and Central America.Smithsonian Contrib.. Mar. Sci., no.30, 184p.

1997   Hayek, L. C., and Buzas, M. A., Surveying natural populations. Columbia U. Press, New York, 563p.